Archive for the ‘yellow fever’ Tag

What are the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD)?   Leave a comment

Group of poverty-promoting chronic infectious diseases, primarily occur in rural areas and poor areas of low-income and middle-income countries (PLoS)

  • with impact on child health and development, pregnancy, and worker productivity
  • as well as stigmatising features
  • excludes the “big three” of tropical diseases (malaria, tuberculosis, HIV)

List of NTDs according to PLoS (Public Library of Science):
* (diseases marked * are on WHO NTD list)
(diseases marked † are on the WHO Neglected Zoonotic Diseases list)

  1. Protozoan infections
    • amebiasis
    • balantidiasis
    • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)*
    • giardiasis
    • human African trypanosomiasis*
    • leishmaniasis*
  2. Helminth infections
    • taeniasis – cysticercosis
    • dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)*
    • echinococcosis
    • food-borne trematodiasis
    • loiasis
    • lymphatic filariasis*
    • onchocerciasis*
    • schistosomiasis*
    • soil-transmitted helminthiases (ascariasis, hookworms, trichuriasis, strongyloides)*
    • toxocariasis and other larva migrans
  3. Viral infections
    • dengue fever*
    • Japanese encephalitis
    • jungle yellow fever
    • other arboviral infections
    • rabies
    • Rift Valley fever
    • viral haemorrhagic fevers
  4. Bacterial infections
    • bartonella
    • bovine tuberculosis in humans
    • Buruli ulcer*
    • cholera
    • enteric pathogens (Shigella, Salmonella, E. coli)
    • leprosy*
    • leptospirosis
    • relapsing fever
    • trachoma*
    • treponematoses (bejel, pinta, syphilis, yaws*)
  5. Fungal infections
    • mycetoma
    • paracoccidiomycosis
  6. Ectoparasitic infections
    • scabies
    • myiasis
  7. Others not in PLoS list
    • fascioliasis*
    • snakebite*
    • anthrax
    • animal influenza
    • BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy)
    • brucellosis
    • foodborne zoonoses
    • prion diseases
    • tularaemia
    • variant CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease)

 

Ref:

  1. WHO: Diseases covered by NTD Department. Available on:
    http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/diseases/en/ (accessed 18 Aug 2010)

  2. PLoS: Neglected Tropical Diseases. Available on:
    http://www.plosntds.org/static/scope.action (accessed 18 Aug 2010)

What are the international travel requirements regarding yellow fever immunisation status?   Leave a comment

WHO recommends YF vaccination for travel to:
AFRICA: Angola | Benin | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cameroon | Central African Republic | Chad | Congo | Cote d’Ivoire | Democratic Republic of the Congo | Equatorial Guinea | Ethiopia | Gabon | Gambia | Ghana | Guinea | Guinea-Bissau | Kenya | Liberia | Mali | Mauritania | Niger | Nigeria | Rwanda | Sao Tome and Principe | Senegal | Sierra Leone | Somalia | Sudan (except Khartoum) | Togo | Uganda | United Republic of Tanzania

AMERICAS: Argentina (north and northeastern forested areas, including Iguacu Falls and all areas bordering Brazil and Paraguay) | Bolivia (except: La Paz, Sucre) | Brazil (except: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza) | Colombia | Ecuador (except: Guayaquil, Quito, Galapagos Islands) | French Guiana | Guyana | Panama (except: Canal Zone, Panama City, San Blas Islands) | Paraguay | Peru (except: Cuzco, Machu Picchu) | Suriname | Trinidad and Tobago (except Tobago only) | Venezuela

 

The following countries require documentary proof of YF vaccination from all incoming travelers:

  1. *ICVP (International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis) for yellow fever MUST be completed; is valid ten days after vaccination and for a period of ten years. Available online from the WHO Press or the US Government Bookstore. A PDF copy may also be downloaded here.

  2. Note: most countries, including Singapore, require proof of valid vaccination against yellow fever for travelers arriving from, or having transited through, a country within the YF-endemic zone. However, the countries listed below require all arriving travelers to have documentation of yellow fever vaccination regardless whether they are arriving from a yellow fever-endemic or non-endemic country.

AFRICA: Angola | Benin | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cameroon | Central African Republic | Chad | Congo | Cote d’Ivoire | Democratic Republic of the Congo | Gabon | Ghana | Liberia | Mali | Mauritania (except: from non-endemic zone staying < 2 weeks) | Niger | Rwanda | Sao Tome and Principe | Sierra Leone | Togo

AMERICAS: French Guiana | Bolivia (unless affidavit signed exempting the state from liability)
 
Ref:

  1. CDC Travelers’ Health — Yellow Book 2008. Chap 4: Prevention of Specific Infectious Diseases: Yellow Fever [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2007 June 20. [updated 2009 Apr 17; cited 2009 Apr 22]. Available from:
    http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-Malaria.aspx

  2. WHO: International Health Regulations (IHR) | International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) [Internet]. World Health Organisation. Available from:
    http://www.who.int/ihr/travel/icvp/en/

  3. CDC Travelers’ Health — Yellow Book 2008. Chap 5: Yellow Fever Vaccine Requirements and Information on Malaria Risk and Prophylaxis, By Country [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [cited 2009 May 27]. Available from:
    http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/ch5/malaria-yellow-fever-table.aspx

Posted November 17, 2009 by absinthemisia in vaccination, yellow fever

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Where is yellow fever endemic?   1 comment

Central & South America
at highest risk: Bolivia | Brazil | Colombia | Ecuador | Peru
also at risk: Panama | Venezuela | Guyana | Suriname | French Guiana | Paraguay | Argentina (Northern border)

Africa
(generally countries within a band 15degN to 10degS of the equator)
at highest risk: Togo | Mali | Senegal | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Benin | Sierra Leone | Nigeria | Liberia | Guinea | Ghana | Cote d’Ivoire
 

The following countries in Africa are not endemic for yellow fever:
Northern Africa: Western Sahara | Morocco | Algeria | Libya | Gibralta (UK) | Malta | Tunisia | Egypt | Eritrea | Djibouti
Southern Africa: Namibia | Botswana | Zambia | Malawi | Mozambique | Zimbabwe | South Africa | Lesotho | Swaziland
Madagascar
 

Ref:

  1. CDC Travelers’ Health — Yellow Book 2008. Chap 4: Prevention of Specific Infectious Diseases: Yellow Fever [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2007 June 20. [updated 2009 Apr 17; cited 2009 Apr 22]. Available from:
    http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-Malaria.aspx

  2. News release: More funding urged for yellow fever vaccine stockpile [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organisation; 26 May 2009 [cited 27 May 2009].

Posted May 27, 2009 by absinthemisia in yellow fever

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Yellow Fever Vaccine and Schedule   Leave a comment

Live attenuated vaccine produced in chick embryos. For purposes of international travel, yellow fever vaccine must be manufactured by a WHO-approved manufacturer and and administered at a WHO-approved yellow fever vaccination centre.

Approved manufacturers by WHO:

  • Aventis Pasteur (France)
  • BioManguinhos (Brazil)
  • Institut Pasteur Dakar (Senegal)

Dosing schedule: one single dose of 0.5ml subcutaneously; booster required every ten years.

Contraindications

  • infants <6 months old (risk of postvaccinal encephalitis)
  • thymic disease eg. thymoma, myasthenia gravis, previous thymectomy
  • hypersensitivity to raw eggs
  • precaution in pregnancy, breastfeeding, infants 6-9 months old, immunosuppressed or immunocompromised state

Adverse reactions

  1. Minor reactions: low-grade fever, myalgia
  2. Major reactions: encephalitis, autoimmune neurologic disease (Guillain-Barre syndrome, acute disseminated encephalo-myelitis) — estimated 0.5 per 100,000 doses

  3. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (fever, hypotension, respiratory failure, elevated hepatocellular enzymes, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia) which is clinically and pathologically similar to fulminant yellow fever caused by wild-type virus, and may be fatal — about 0.3 to 0.5 per 100,000 doses distributed.

 

Ref:

  1. CDC Travelers’ Health — Yellow Book 2008. Chap 4: Prevention of Specific Infectious Diseases: Yellow Fever [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2007 June 20. [updated 2009 Apr 17; cited 2009 Apr 22]. Available from:
    http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-Malaria.aspx

  2. WHO | Yellow Fever (Fact Sheet No. 100) [Internet]. World Health Organisation [revised 2001 Dec; cited 2009 Apr 22]. Available from:
    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/

Posted April 22, 2009 by absinthemisia in yellow fever

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