Archive for the ‘vaccination’ Tag

Typhim Vi (Sanofi Pasteur)   Leave a comment

Typhim Vi™ (Sanofi Pasteur)
(typhoid vaccine)

Vaccine Type: polysaccharide vaccine
Composition: purified Vi capsular polysaccharides of Salmonella typhi (Ty2 strain) 25mcg/0.5ml

Dosage:

  • indicated for active immunisation over 5 years of age
  • 0.5ml per dose: im/sc one single dose
  • revaccination every 3 years if continued risk of exposure

Contraindicated in:

  • hypersensitivity to any component
  • not to be injected intravascularly
  • not indicated for <2y/o due to insufficient Ab response
  • delay vaccination if acute severe febrile illness

Pregnancy: insufficient data; pregnancy is not a reason not to administer vaccine in view of seriousness of disease and in case of high risk of exposure.
Lactation: caution is advised.

Adverse reactions:
usually moderate & of short duration
local injection site reactions (pain, edema, redness)
 

Ref:

  1. promotional material, Sanofi Pasteur
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Posted December 13, 2011 by absinthemisia in vaccination

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Avaxim (Sanofi Pasteur)   Leave a comment

AVaxim™ 160 U (Sanofi Pasteur)
(Hepatitis A vaccine)

Vaccine Type: inactivated adsorbed vaccine
Composition: inactivated Hepatitis A virus, GBM strain, 160 units, cultured on MRC-5 human diploid cells, adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide (= 0.3mg of Al).

Dosage:

  • indicated for active immunisation from 16 years of age
  • 0.5ml per dose: im/sc one primary dose
  • booster for long-term protection: preferably 6-12 months, but may be administered up to 36 months after first dose
  • Avaxim may be used as booster dose if primary dose was given with another inactivated Hep A vaccine

Contraindicated in:

  • hypersensitivity to neomycin
  • not to be injected in the buttocks or intradermally
  • delay vaccination if acute severe febrile illness
  • response may be reduced in immunosuppressed
  • no studies done in subjects with liver disease

Pregnancy: avoid except in major contamination risk.
Lactation: consider benefit of breastfeeding for child, versus Avaxim for woman.

Adverse reactions:
usually mild, confined to first few days with spontaneous recovery

  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain
  • headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia
  • mild injection site pain, mild fever

Drug interactions:

  • immunoglobulins may be administered together at a different injection site
  • may be given with other inactivated vaccines at different site, including Typhim Vi and yellow fever vaccine

 

Ref:

  1. promotional material, Sanofi Pasteur

Posted December 13, 2011 by absinthemisia in viral hepatitis, Virology

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Influenza vaccine: Vaxigrip NH 2011/2012   Leave a comment

Vaxigrip NH 2011/2012 (sanofi-aventis)
(from promotional material)

Vaccine type: split virion, inactivated influenza vaccine
Composition:
<complies with WHO recommendation)

  • A/California/7/2009(H1N1)
  • A/Perth/16/2009(H3N2)
  • B/Brisbane/60/2008

Available in:

  • Vaxigrip Pediatric 0.25ml for 6-35 months of age
  • Vaxigrip 0.5ml for children & adults 36 months and older

Posted September 12, 2011 by absinthemisia in influenza, vaccination

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Prevenar schedule (from Wyeth)   1 comment

based on material from Wyeth
for Prevenar use in Singapore for routine childhood immunisation, see here
for Prevenar use in Singapore for catch-up immunisation in children, see here

Age at first dose & number of doses:

  1. 2 – 6 months: 3 + 1
    • can give as early as 6 weeks old
    • interval between first 3 doses: 4-8 weeks
    • booster: at least 2 months after 3rd dose (approx. 12-15 months old)
  2. 7 – 11 months: 2 + 1
    • primary doses at least 4 weeks apart
    • booster dose after 1 year old & at least 2 months after 2nd dose
  3. 12 – 23 months: 1 + 1
    • at least 2 months apart
  4. 24 months through 9 years: 1 dose only

 
Ref:

  1. Product information and promotional material from Wyeth, WP-PREV-07/05-2-SG

Influenza vaccine: influvac 2010/2011   1 comment

Influvac® 2010/2011 (Solvay, Netherlands)
(from package insert, April 2010)

Vaccine type: viral surface antigen (inactivated) (haemagglutinin & neuraminidase)
Composition: complies with WHO recommendation for N hemisphere 2010/2011
Dosage:

  • 6-35months: 0.25ml or 0.5ml (clinical data limited)
  • >36months & adults: 0.5ml
  • single dose vaccine; however in children who have not previously been vaccinated, second dose (booster) should be given after an interval of at least 4 weeks
  • intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injection

Seroprotection: achieved in 2-3 weeks, duration 6-12 months

Contains traces of:

  • residues of eggs, chicken protein eg. ovalbumin (propagated in fertilised hens’ eggs)
  • formaldehyde
  • gentamicin
  • polysorbate 80, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

Use in pregnancy/lactation:

  • limited data do not indicate that adverse foetal and maternal outcomes were attributable to the vaccine
  • may be considered from second trimester
  • if medical condition increases risk of complication from influenza, vaccine may be warranted regardless of stage of pregnancy
  • may be used during lactation

Some common side effects:

  • headache, myalgia, arthralgia, fever, malaise, fatigue
  • local: redness, swelling, pain, ecchymosis, induration
  • rare: neuralgia, encelphalomyelitis, GBS

Posted August 25, 2010 by absinthemisia in Infectious Dis, influenza, vaccination

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MMRV: Priorix-Tetra™   Leave a comment

Priorix-Tetra™ (GSK, Belgium)
(Measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine)

Vaccine Type: live attentuated vaccine for all 4 viruses
Composition:

  • live attenuated measles virus (Schwarz strain)*
  • live attenuated mumps virus (RIT 4385 strain)*
  • live attenuated rubella virus (Wistar RA 27/3 strain) produced in human diploid (MRC-5) cells
  • live attenuated varicella virus (OKA strain)*

* produced in chick embryo cells

Dosage:

  • 0.5ml per dose: subcutaneous inj preferably outer aspect of upper arm
  • see Singapore’s childhood immunisation schedule
  • preferably at least 6-week interval between doses: must not be < 4 weeks
  • indicated for active immunisation from 12 months to 12 years

Contraindicated in:

  • hypersensitivity to neomycin
  • impaired immune systems eg. primary/secondary immunodeficiency
  • pregnant females
  • anaphylactoid/acute reaction to egg: at higher risk of similar reaction but not common; vaccinate with extreme caution
  • history of febrile convulsions: follow-up closely 4-12 days for vaccine-related fever
  • acute febrile illness: postpone
  • transmission of varicella vaccine virus rarely possible; MMR transmission never documented
  • vaccinate asymptomatic HIV patients with caution, at physician’s discretion

Pregnancy: contraindicated
and avoid getting pregnant for three months after vaccination. There is inadequate data on use during lactation.

Drug interactions:

  • tuberculin testing: to be carried out before or simultaneously with vaccination (as MMR may cause temporary depression in tuberculin skin sensitivity), otherwise withhold for up to 6 weeks to avoid false negative results
  • gammaglobulins, blood transfusion: delay for at least 3 months due to passively acquired antibodies causing vaccine failure
  • salicylates: avoid for 6 weeks after vaccination as Reye’s syndrome may occur when salicylates are used following natural varicella infection

 

Ref:

  1. Package insert, International Data Sheet version 1 SI (14/02/2007)

Hepatitis vaccine: Twinrix™   Leave a comment

Twinrix™ (GSK)
(from package insert, April 2004)

Vaccine type: combined inactivated Hepatitis A and surface antigen Hepatitis B

Composition (per 1.0ml dose):
720 ELISA units Hep A virus and 20mcg recombinant HBsAg

Dosage:

  • 16yo and above (3 doses): 1.0ml at 0, 1 month, 6 months (after 1st dose)
  • alternatively, if travel is anticipated urgently: 0, 7 days, 21 days; booster at 12 months
  • 1-15yo (2 doses): 1.0ml at 0 then 6-12 months
  • booster: Twinrix™ can be used if booster of both Hep A & B required. Alternatively, either monovalent vaccine may be used separately

  • intramuscular injection into deltoid or anterolateral thigh (infants); avoid gluteal

  • subcutaneous route may be used in bleeding disorders but suboptimal immune response may result

Contraindicated in:

  • anaphylaxis to neomycin
  • postpone in subjects with acute severe febrile illness

Use in pregnancy/lactation:

  • adequate data not available, but not expected to harm the foetus
  • used during pregnancy only when there is a clear risk of Hep A and B
  • use with caution in breastfeeding women

Some side effects:

  • common: fatigue, headache, malaise, nausea
  • uncommon: fever, vomiting
  • SE involving other organ systems are very rare