Archive for the ‘vaccination’ Tag

Typhim Vi (Sanofi Pasteur)   Leave a comment

Typhim Vi™ (Sanofi Pasteur)
(typhoid vaccine)

Vaccine Type: polysaccharide vaccine
Composition: purified Vi capsular polysaccharides of Salmonella typhi (Ty2 strain) 25mcg/0.5ml


  • indicated for active immunisation over 5 years of age
  • 0.5ml per dose: im/sc one single dose
  • revaccination every 3 years if continued risk of exposure

Contraindicated in:

  • hypersensitivity to any component
  • not to be injected intravascularly
  • not indicated for <2y/o due to insufficient Ab response
  • delay vaccination if acute severe febrile illness

Pregnancy: insufficient data; pregnancy is not a reason not to administer vaccine in view of seriousness of disease and in case of high risk of exposure.
Lactation: caution is advised.

Adverse reactions:
usually moderate & of short duration
local injection site reactions (pain, edema, redness)


  1. promotional material, Sanofi Pasteur

Posted December 13, 2011 by absinthemisia in vaccination

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Avaxim (Sanofi Pasteur)   Leave a comment

AVaxim™ 160 U (Sanofi Pasteur)
(Hepatitis A vaccine)

Vaccine Type: inactivated adsorbed vaccine
Composition: inactivated Hepatitis A virus, GBM strain, 160 units, cultured on MRC-5 human diploid cells, adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide (= 0.3mg of Al).


  • indicated for active immunisation from 16 years of age
  • 0.5ml per dose: im/sc one primary dose
  • booster for long-term protection: preferably 6-12 months, but may be administered up to 36 months after first dose
  • Avaxim may be used as booster dose if primary dose was given with another inactivated Hep A vaccine

Contraindicated in:

  • hypersensitivity to neomycin
  • not to be injected in the buttocks or intradermally
  • delay vaccination if acute severe febrile illness
  • response may be reduced in immunosuppressed
  • no studies done in subjects with liver disease

Pregnancy: avoid except in major contamination risk.
Lactation: consider benefit of breastfeeding for child, versus Avaxim for woman.

Adverse reactions:
usually mild, confined to first few days with spontaneous recovery

  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain
  • headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia
  • mild injection site pain, mild fever

Drug interactions:

  • immunoglobulins may be administered together at a different injection site
  • may be given with other inactivated vaccines at different site, including Typhim Vi and yellow fever vaccine



  1. promotional material, Sanofi Pasteur

Posted December 13, 2011 by absinthemisia in viral hepatitis, Virology

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Influenza vaccine: Vaxigrip NH 2011/2012   Leave a comment

Vaxigrip NH 2011/2012 (sanofi-aventis)
(from promotional material)

Vaccine type: split virion, inactivated influenza vaccine
<complies with WHO recommendation)

  • A/California/7/2009(H1N1)
  • A/Perth/16/2009(H3N2)
  • B/Brisbane/60/2008

Available in:

  • Vaxigrip Pediatric 0.25ml for 6-35 months of age
  • Vaxigrip 0.5ml for children & adults 36 months and older

Posted September 12, 2011 by absinthemisia in influenza, vaccination

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Prevenar schedule (from Wyeth)   1 comment

based on material from Wyeth
for Prevenar use in Singapore for routine childhood immunisation, see here
for Prevenar use in Singapore for catch-up immunisation in children, see here

Age at first dose & number of doses:

  1. 2 – 6 months: 3 + 1
    • can give as early as 6 weeks old
    • interval between first 3 doses: 4-8 weeks
    • booster: at least 2 months after 3rd dose (approx. 12-15 months old)
  2. 7 – 11 months: 2 + 1
    • primary doses at least 4 weeks apart
    • booster dose after 1 year old & at least 2 months after 2nd dose
  3. 12 – 23 months: 1 + 1
    • at least 2 months apart
  4. 24 months through 9 years: 1 dose only


  1. Product information and promotional material from Wyeth, WP-PREV-07/05-2-SG

Influenza vaccine: influvac 2010/2011   1 comment

Influvac® 2010/2011 (Solvay, Netherlands)
(from package insert, April 2010)

Vaccine type: viral surface antigen (inactivated) (haemagglutinin & neuraminidase)
Composition: complies with WHO recommendation for N hemisphere 2010/2011

  • 6-35months: 0.25ml or 0.5ml (clinical data limited)
  • >36months & adults: 0.5ml
  • single dose vaccine; however in children who have not previously been vaccinated, second dose (booster) should be given after an interval of at least 4 weeks
  • intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injection

Seroprotection: achieved in 2-3 weeks, duration 6-12 months

Contains traces of:

  • residues of eggs, chicken protein eg. ovalbumin (propagated in fertilised hens’ eggs)
  • formaldehyde
  • gentamicin
  • polysorbate 80, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

Use in pregnancy/lactation:

  • limited data do not indicate that adverse foetal and maternal outcomes were attributable to the vaccine
  • may be considered from second trimester
  • if medical condition increases risk of complication from influenza, vaccine may be warranted regardless of stage of pregnancy
  • may be used during lactation

Some common side effects:

  • headache, myalgia, arthralgia, fever, malaise, fatigue
  • local: redness, swelling, pain, ecchymosis, induration
  • rare: neuralgia, encelphalomyelitis, GBS

Posted August 25, 2010 by absinthemisia in Infectious Dis, influenza, vaccination

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MMRV: Priorix-Tetra™   Leave a comment

Priorix-Tetra™ (GSK, Belgium)
(Measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine)

Vaccine Type: live attentuated vaccine for all 4 viruses

  • live attenuated measles virus (Schwarz strain)*
  • live attenuated mumps virus (RIT 4385 strain)*
  • live attenuated rubella virus (Wistar RA 27/3 strain) produced in human diploid (MRC-5) cells
  • live attenuated varicella virus (OKA strain)*

* produced in chick embryo cells


  • 0.5ml per dose: subcutaneous inj preferably outer aspect of upper arm
  • see Singapore’s childhood immunisation schedule
  • preferably at least 6-week interval between doses: must not be < 4 weeks
  • indicated for active immunisation from 12 months to 12 years

Contraindicated in:

  • hypersensitivity to neomycin
  • impaired immune systems eg. primary/secondary immunodeficiency
  • pregnant females
  • anaphylactoid/acute reaction to egg: at higher risk of similar reaction but not common; vaccinate with extreme caution
  • history of febrile convulsions: follow-up closely 4-12 days for vaccine-related fever
  • acute febrile illness: postpone
  • transmission of varicella vaccine virus rarely possible; MMR transmission never documented
  • vaccinate asymptomatic HIV patients with caution, at physician’s discretion

Pregnancy: contraindicated
and avoid getting pregnant for three months after vaccination. There is inadequate data on use during lactation.

Drug interactions:

  • tuberculin testing: to be carried out before or simultaneously with vaccination (as MMR may cause temporary depression in tuberculin skin sensitivity), otherwise withhold for up to 6 weeks to avoid false negative results
  • gammaglobulins, blood transfusion: delay for at least 3 months due to passively acquired antibodies causing vaccine failure
  • salicylates: avoid for 6 weeks after vaccination as Reye’s syndrome may occur when salicylates are used following natural varicella infection



  1. Package insert, International Data Sheet version 1 SI (14/02/2007)

Hepatitis vaccine: Twinrix™   Leave a comment

Twinrix™ (GSK)
(from package insert, April 2004)

Vaccine type: combined inactivated Hepatitis A and surface antigen Hepatitis B

Composition (per 1.0ml dose):
720 ELISA units Hep A virus and 20mcg recombinant HBsAg


  • 16yo and above (3 doses): 1.0ml at 0, 1 month, 6 months (after 1st dose)
  • alternatively, if travel is anticipated urgently: 0, 7 days, 21 days; booster at 12 months
  • 1-15yo (2 doses): 1.0ml at 0 then 6-12 months
  • booster: Twinrix™ can be used if booster of both Hep A & B required. Alternatively, either monovalent vaccine may be used separately

  • intramuscular injection into deltoid or anterolateral thigh (infants); avoid gluteal

  • subcutaneous route may be used in bleeding disorders but suboptimal immune response may result

Contraindicated in:

  • anaphylaxis to neomycin
  • postpone in subjects with acute severe febrile illness

Use in pregnancy/lactation:

  • adequate data not available, but not expected to harm the foetus
  • used during pregnancy only when there is a clear risk of Hep A and B
  • use with caution in breastfeeding women

Some side effects:

  • common: fatigue, headache, malaise, nausea
  • uncommon: fever, vomiting
  • SE involving other organ systems are very rare