Archive for the ‘viral hepatitis’ Category

Avaxim (Sanofi Pasteur)   Leave a comment

AVaxim™ 160 U (Sanofi Pasteur)
(Hepatitis A vaccine)

Vaccine Type: inactivated adsorbed vaccine
Composition: inactivated Hepatitis A virus, GBM strain, 160 units, cultured on MRC-5 human diploid cells, adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide (= 0.3mg of Al).


  • indicated for active immunisation from 16 years of age
  • 0.5ml per dose: im/sc one primary dose
  • booster for long-term protection: preferably 6-12 months, but may be administered up to 36 months after first dose
  • Avaxim may be used as booster dose if primary dose was given with another inactivated Hep A vaccine

Contraindicated in:

  • hypersensitivity to neomycin
  • not to be injected in the buttocks or intradermally
  • delay vaccination if acute severe febrile illness
  • response may be reduced in immunosuppressed
  • no studies done in subjects with liver disease

Pregnancy: avoid except in major contamination risk.
Lactation: consider benefit of breastfeeding for child, versus Avaxim for woman.

Adverse reactions:
usually mild, confined to first few days with spontaneous recovery

  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain
  • headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia
  • mild injection site pain, mild fever

Drug interactions:

  • immunoglobulins may be administered together at a different injection site
  • may be given with other inactivated vaccines at different site, including Typhim Vi and yellow fever vaccine



  1. promotional material, Sanofi Pasteur

Posted December 13, 2011 by absinthemisia in viral hepatitis, Virology

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Hepatitis vaccine: Twinrix™   Leave a comment

Twinrix™ (GSK)
(from package insert, April 2004)

Vaccine type: combined inactivated Hepatitis A and surface antigen Hepatitis B

Composition (per 1.0ml dose):
720 ELISA units Hep A virus and 20mcg recombinant HBsAg


  • 16yo and above (3 doses): 1.0ml at 0, 1 month, 6 months (after 1st dose)
  • alternatively, if travel is anticipated urgently: 0, 7 days, 21 days; booster at 12 months
  • 1-15yo (2 doses): 1.0ml at 0 then 6-12 months
  • booster: Twinrix™ can be used if booster of both Hep A & B required. Alternatively, either monovalent vaccine may be used separately

  • intramuscular injection into deltoid or anterolateral thigh (infants); avoid gluteal

  • subcutaneous route may be used in bleeding disorders but suboptimal immune response may result

Contraindicated in:

  • anaphylaxis to neomycin
  • postpone in subjects with acute severe febrile illness

Use in pregnancy/lactation:

  • adequate data not available, but not expected to harm the foetus
  • used during pregnancy only when there is a clear risk of Hep A and B
  • use with caution in breastfeeding women

Some side effects:

  • common: fatigue, headache, malaise, nausea
  • uncommon: fever, vomiting
  • SE involving other organ systems are very rare